PMG has performed numerous fully integrated reservoir engineering studies covering a wide range of oil and reservoirs, both locally and internationally. We have handled studies from a single-well pool waterflood, to large fields with hundreds of wells. Our experienced staff are highly trained to use most of the commercial software including; Eclipse, IMEX, Petrel, and Fekete software.
The reservoir studies performed by PMG include, but not limited to the following:
Evaluation of primary production performance and the potential for infill drilling
Conceptual design of E.O.R schemes
Applications of Multi-Stage Fracturing of Horizontal Wells (MFHW)
Gas deliverability studies including surface networks
Unconventional oil and gas optimization studies
Sour gas disposal
Gas Production Forecasting, including Surface Network
PMG has performed studies to generate realistic production forecasts for a variety of well/field configurations; single/multiple layers, single/multiple pools, using the Piper (Fekete) model. The Piper Software includes the reservoir (tank model) and the surface network. It is expected that this year KAPPA will introduce a new feature of the Rubis Software that can model the reservoir numerically and attach a surface network to it. This will allow the analysis of complex reservoirs and produce reliable surface production forecasts from the wellhead to the inlet of the processing plant.
Prepare production forecasts for different development scenarios
Reservoir Management is the practical science that integrates multi-disciplinary team efforts to predict the performance of various oil and gas reservoirs and prepare optimal development plans and depletion strategy for the full production cycle. To ensure our clients will realize the highest return on investment, we ensure that our recommendations will offer:
The most cost-effective way to manage the development/management
The use of new and applicable technologies
The adherence to the timeline of field development
PMG has added value to many projects by making valuable recommendations to our clients; using the “Reservoir Management” tools, including:
PMG has been involved in numerous pipeline inspection and repair projects in North America and Internationally. PMG utilizes a consortium of some of the most qualified staff (Dr. Adel Guirgis) and the association with several reputable service providers to ensure that the best service and technology are carefully selected and applied for specific pipeline problems. Our services include but not limited to:
Pipeline Coating Systems – Please Video clip below by Shawcor
Pipeline Engineering Services
Leak detection (High-fidelity dynamic sensing (acoustic, temperature, strain) – Please see video clip below by HIfi
Pressure-Pumping Inspection and Service Repair
Pipeline Logistics Solutions
Corrosion Prevention Services – Please see video clip below by Tuboscope
Pipeline Inspection Services
Electrical Wire and Cable
Non-Destructive Testing Services
Heat Shrink and Cold-Applied Cable Accessories
Mechanical Integrity Services
Some of the new technologies we use, are as follow:
1. A robot called SEEKUR has a GPS and magnetic detection system that can drive along the pipeline route
Ground Penetrating Radar can be attached. Two different types of frequencies. This allows for soil condition assessment, any settlement, and also pipeline conditions.
2. A “Drone” can “follow” the SEEKUR robot and has the following sensors:
The Infrared Thermography (at a proprietary wavelength) that allows for fume and gas detection and any change in soil, vegetation or soil conditions
A A 4-sensor analyzer that can measure the concentration of C1, CO, LELs and H2S
3. Finally we follow through with another type of “Drone” that has the following sensor:
A proprietary gas leak detection sensor
All aircraft and vehicles have the latest and greatest software and hardware
All aircraft is custom-designed for severe Canadian weather to withstand temperature, wind and adverse weather conditions
4. Fiberoptics monitoring using: Temperature, pressure, chemical leaks, strain, and have a prototype magnetic flux system using fiber data. We supplement by doing simulations and track flow (material balance).
There are many oil fields that have been producing under primary, achieving only a modest ultimate oil recovery. Therefore, there is a massive untapped oil reserve that can only be recovered by applying EOR techniques. PMG has been involved in initiating/designing new EOR schemes and also optimizing existing schemes. Our recommendations have resulted in recognizing upside reserves substantially and increasing project’s NPV.
Services in the area of EOR include:
Screen for the suitable EOR scheme
Detailed design of the project
Define fluid injection requirements
Select location and define the number of injectors
Design pilot projects; if deemed essential
Prepare production forecasts for various field development scenarios
Run economics to ensure technical and economic benefits are achieved
Prepare an application to the ERCB to obtain approval
The thorough evaluation of field performance by our experienced team resulted in a significant production increase and higher cash flow. Detailed review of drilling, completion, and production history can yield clues to ways to increase production, such as:
Identification for wellbore/formation damage and making recommendations to stimulate a producer/injector
Identification of poor completion technique such as inadequate cementing behind the casing
Diagnosing production problems that could develop along the production history, and preparing remedial action
Evaluating potential infill drilling
Implementation of pressure maintenance and EOR schemes
Installation/optimization of artificial lift methods
Nodal analysis to optimize wellbore design; tubing size, liquid loading, perforation design, etc.
Optimization of frac treatment
Identification of bypassed hydrocarbons from petrophysical analysis
Well Test Analysis is considered the most powerful reservoir management tool. At PMG, we have analyzed over 20,000 well tests in North America and internationally. We are we use the most sophisticated software by KAPPA Engineering (France). Our staff has analyzed tests from conventional and unconventional reservoirs using analytical and numerical tools. Our staff has helped our clients in all aspects of well testing including:
• Setting objectives of the well test
• Selecting the most suitable type of well test
• Design and prepare the related well test program, to ensure conclusive results are obtained.
• Analyze test data using analytical and numerical techniques.
PMG utilizes a combination of the most advanced techniques to analyze well performance, including:
• Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA); using the Saphir software by KAPPA, including Mini Frac (DFIT.
• Rate Transient Analysis (RTA); using Topaze software by KAPPA
At PMG, we developed a unique technique to analyze one of the most complex well tests for Multi-stage Frac Horizontal Wells (MFHW), and multi-well testing using both analytical & numerical techniques.
For the first time in the history of the Canadian oil industry, the year 2011 witnessed more horizontal wells being drilled than vertical. This is the result of the rapid advancements in how we drill, complete, and frac Hz wells. Further, many of the challenging reservoirs/formations that the industry is dealing with now, fall in the category of tight, super tight and even ultra tight in the term of the formation permeability. Unconventional reservoirs, such as shale gas, CBM and siltty sandstone, cannot be produced economically without the applications of Multi-Stage Fracing of Horizontal Wells technology.
PMG has taken the lead in helping many oil companies to make important decisions that can reduce development costs and improve project’s NPV. The use of specialized software (Topaze and Rubis) and experienced staff, allowed PMG to assist our clients to optimize the design of MFHW’s, as follows:
Spacing between the horizontal wells
The number of frac stages or the spacing between the fracs
Open hole vs cased hole completion
Taking advantage of sweet spots present along the Hz well
Mini Frac Applications
PMG recommends the use of Mini Frac for the following reasons:
Obtain important data for frac design
Obtain other reservoir parameters
Optimize water/fluid injection in EOR schemes
Avoid over-injection (over the frac pressure)
Avoid under-injection (much lower than the frac pressure)
Determine ceiling injection pressure for steam-flooding projects (ERCB requirement)
PMG offers valuable services in the challenging area of engineering including various consulting and training services for CBM, shale gas, and tight sands. Because of the extreme tight nature of these reservoirs, new technology is necessary to endure that commercial production is realized. Our mandate in the area of engineering is to help our clients unlock the potential of Unconventional Reservoirs
The most cost-effective way to manage the development/management
Identifying sweet spots; natural fractures and orientation
Determining formation permeability
Applications of horizontal well and optimum orientation
Applying multi-stage fracturing
Selecting proper well spacing
We have performed a wide range of studies for reservoir producing from the following formations: